Nasal polyps are soft, painless, noncancerous growths on the lining of your nasal passages or sinuses. They can form at any age but are more common in young and middle-aged adults. Nasal polyps usually appear in an area where sinuses near your eyes, nose, and cheekbones all drain through winding passages into your nose (the ostiomeatal complex).
Any condition that triggers chronic inflammation in your nasal passages or sinuses increases your risk of developing nasal polyps. Nasal polyps often result from chronic inflammation due to asthma, recurring infections (e.g., chronic sinusitis), allergies (e.g., airborne fungi), drug sensitivity (e.g., aspirin), or certain immune disorders. Family history may also play a role, as certain genetic variations associated with immune system function make you more likely to develop nasal polyps.
Small nasal polyps don’t usually cause symptoms; however, larger growths can block your nasal passages and sinuses or lead to breathing problems, a lost sense of smell and frequent infections.
For patients who already have chronic sinusitis, the addition of nasal polyps may cause sinusitis symptoms to worsen. Symptoms that are often associated with chronic sinusitis include:
- A runny nose
- Persistent stuffiness
- Postnasal drip
- Decreased or absent sense of smell
- Loss of sense of taste
- Facial pain or a headache
- Pain in your upper teeth
- A sense of pressure over your forehead and face
You should seek immediate emergency care or call 911 if your symptoms have worsened, and you are experiencing any of the following:
- Serious trouble breathing
- Sudden worsening of symptoms
- Double vision, reduced vision or limited ability to move your eyes
- Severe swelling around your eyes
- Increased headache pain, high fever or inability to tip your head forward
Yes, nasal polyps can cause complications, because they block normal airflow and fluid drainage, and because your system is in a chronic state of inflammation. Some potential complications that could occur include:
- Obstructive Sleep Apnea
- You stop and start breathing frequently during sleep.
- Asthma Flare-Ups
- Chronic rhinosinusitis can aggravate asthma.
- Sinus Infections
- Nasal polyps make you more susceptible to sinus infections.
During a consultation, your ENT (ear, nose, and throat) doctor will conduct a general physical exam and an examination of your nose. Your ENT doctor may use a lighted, nasal endoscope to look into your nose and sinuses. Additional testing, such as allergy testing (e.g, skin prick test or blood test) and imaging studies (e.g., CT scan or MRI) can help your ENT doctor determine the cause and or pinpoint the size and location of polyps in deeper areas of your sinuses. This testing will help to figure out the extent of your inflammation.
Your ENT doctor will work with you to develop the best, long-term treatment plan to manage your symptoms and to treat factors, such as allergies, that may contribute to chronic inflammation. It should be noted, however, that no matter the treatment, nasal polyps may return. That is why it is important to determine the cause of your chronic inflammation so that our ENT doctors can help prevent nasal polyps from returning.
Ideally, the goal of treatment is to reduce the size of the polyps or eliminate them all together. Your ENT doctor may first recommend medical management of your symptoms with medications, such as:
Antibiotics. These may be prescribed to treat chronic or recurrent infections.
Antihistamines. These may be prescribed to treat allergies that contribute to chronic inflammation in your sinuses or nasal passages.
Nasal corticosteroids. Corticosteroid nasal sprays help to reduce inflammation. Treatment may help shrink the polyps or eliminate them completely.
Oral and injectable corticosteroids. An oral corticosteroid, such as prednisone, may be prescribed in combination with nasal corticosteroids or for patients who don’t respond to nasal corticosteroids. As a precaution, they are only prescribed for a short time period due to side effects.
SINUVA Sinus Implant is a steroid-releasing (mometasone furoate) implant indicated for the treatment of nasal polyps. SINUVA is placed in your doctor’s office using topical and/or local anesthesia to numb your nose and sinuses.
If medical management of your symptoms is unsuccessful, your ENT doctor may recommend endoscopic sinus surgery to remove polyps and to correct problems with your sinuses that make them prone to inflammation and polyp development.
Endoscopic sinus surgery is usually performed as an outpatient procedure. During surgery, your ENT surgeon inserts a small tube with a magnifying lens or tiny camera (endoscope) into your nostrils and guides it into your sinus cavities. Tiny instruments are then used to remove polyps and other obstructions that block the flow of fluids from your sinuses.
After surgery, your ENT doctor may prescribe a nasal corticosteroid spray to help prevent the recurrence of nasal polyps. You may also be advised to use a nasal saline rinse to promote healing after surgery.
If your chronic sinusitis symptoms have gotten worse, it may be due to nasal polyps. Contact CT Sinus Center at (203) 574–5997 to set up a consultation with one of our ENT doctors for diagnosis and treatment recommendations.